Medical Billing and Coding Careers – Jobs, Salaries & Education Requirements

ASO Staff Writers
Updated July 11, 2023
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The days of color-coded file folders are waning as electronic health data and technologies become omnipresent in the healthcare field. The transition has put medical billers and coders in high demand, but before jumping into one of these health information fields, it’s important to know what billing and coding careers entail, the education and certifications necessary, and how to find a job and advance in the field.

Medical Billing and Coding Career Paths

Increased access to healthcare, combined with an aging population, are fueling the growth of healthcare jobs and the administrative support services needed. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects a 15 percent growth between 2014 and 2024 for medical records and health information technicians, a career that can be entered fairly quickly – often in less than a year – through earning a certificate, diploma or associate degree. Graduates may then take positions in a variety of settings, from doctor’s offices to private billing firms. The following sampling of careers shows the diversity of jobs available to medical billing and coding professionals.

plusBilling Customer Service Specialist

Work Environment: Call Center

Answers phones to respond to general customer inquiries, invoice questions, and customer complaints. Also prepares memos and correspondence, and contacts customers regarding outstanding balances.

plusTeam Lead: Hospital Collections

Work Environment: Hospital or healthcare system

Oversees billing and re-billing procedures and troubleshoots problems. Ensures that compliance, quality, call model accuracy, client specifics and collections practices workflows are adhered to.

plusCoding Auditor

Work Environment: Remote/At home

Codes, reviews and audits medical records to ensure that diagnostic codes and modifiers align with coding guidelines. Ensures work is accurate and has been submitted for payment.

plusCoding Coordinator: Physician Practice

Work Environment: Physician’s Office

Oversees coding department operations, such as managing electronic medical records (EMRs), performing coding edits, and analyzing data. Advises and educates employees in various coding departments, assesses performance and compliance, and implements various tactics to improve the coding and billing process.

In 2013, the unemployment rate for Certified Professional Coders was just 1.7 percent, compared with 7.4 percent national unemployment rate. (Becker’s)

According to the BLS, the following types of industries employ the highest number of medical billers and coders:

Industries with the Highest Number of Medical Billers and Coders
IndustryEmploymentHourly Mean WageAnnual Mean Wage
General medical and surgical hospitals66,780$20.71$43,080
Physicians’ offices38,920$16.80$34,940
Nursing care facilities11,970$18.05$37,550
Outpatient care centers7,060$17.97$37,370
Management of companies and enterprises6,350$22.13$46,030

Working Remotely as a Biller or Coder

Need to stay home with the kids? Prefer to work in the middle of the night? Want to cut the commute to save time and money? Working remotely is one of the main draws for people who become medical billers and coders. Since work is done via computer, many employers hire independent contractors, or allow employees to choose when and where they work. The only requirements are high-speed Internet access, a secure connection to comply with HIPAA privacy requirements—and enough self-motivation to get the job done.

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Roles and Responsibilities

Although individuals in both medical billing and medical coding can expect to work closely with each other, they will also have their own, specifically defined workplace roles and responsibilities.

  • Medical Billing

    Since all types of medical practices need billing services, medical billers can work in a variety of settings, including large outpatient clinics, small private practices, or specialty facilities like nursing homes. Most medical billing work takes place on a computer and over the phone.

  • Medical Coding

    Medical coders can work in many different settings, from in- and outpatient treatment centers to insurance companies or healthcare software development companies. Coders do most of their work on a computer.

Medical Billing and Coding Salaries In-Depth

Salaries for medical billers and coders depend on several factors. Education, certification, experience, location and employer can all affect earnings. On average, annual earnings are between about $35,000 and $50,000, although wage estimates vary depending on the source. For example, the Bureau of Labor Statistics shows a 2015 median annual salary of $37,110 for U.S. medical records and health information technicians, which includes coders. The AAPC reports that member earnings averaged at $50,775 in 2014. The employment data site Payscale shows that the median annual wage is $38,463 for medical coders and $35,139 for medical billers.

Jobs for both medical record and health information technicians, as well as medical and health service managers, are both growing faster than the national average for all careers, at 15 percent and 17 percent, respectively. (BLS)

Top Paying States for Medical Billers and Coders

  • District of Columbia

    Employment: 610
    Annual Mean Wage: $69,290
  • New Jersey

    Employment: 1,630
    Annual Mean Wage: $60,310
  • Alaska

    Employment: 710
    Annual Mean Wage: $52,040
  • California

    Employment: 18,860
    Annual Mean Wage: $48,590
  • Maryland

    Employment: 3,890
    Annual Mean Wage: $47,930


Boosting Salary Potential

Medical billers and coders have multiple opportunities to increase their earnings, from specializing in certain aspects of their field to gaining new skills that will allow them to switch careers paths. Following are some of the most common strategies:

  • minusEducation

    Education has a direct link to earnings. Employment in medical billing and coding typically requires a certificate or associate degree, but those seeking a salary boost should consider earning a bachelor’s or graduate-level education. According to the AAPC’s 2014 salary survey, professionals with bachelor’s degrees earned about $10,000 more annually than those with no college experience, while those with graduate degrees earned more than twice as much as those with no college experience. Additional study in areas such as medical records technology, health information management, and health care administration can help medical billing and coding professionals increase their earnings.
  • minusCertification

    Certification can also affect salaries, as employers often prefer to hire job candidates with recognized credentials. Salary surveys conducted by AAPC in 2015 show that members with one certification earned an average of $46,899 annually, whereas those with two or more credentials increased their earnings to $58,399. Three or more certifications boosted pay even higher, to $65,643.
  • minusSpecialization

    Specialization and enhanced expertise is another path to higher pay. Specialty credentials range from Certified Cardiology Coder (CCC) to Certified Pediatrics Coder (CPEDC). Individuals with AAPC specialty coding certifications have an average annual salary of $53,489, more than $6,600 above the overall average salary reported. Similarly, the average salary rises as coders, billers, practice managers, auditors, and educators gain experience.
  • minusJob Transfers

    Job transfers offer another option for those seeking higher wages, depending on the particular employer and type of workplace. The BLS shows that pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing ranks among the highest-paying industries, while government agencies pay more than outpatient care centers or diagnostic laboratories.
  • minusCareer Crossovers

    Career crossovers may increase wages or provide alternative benefits in other allied health occupations. With the right training and qualifications, coders might make the switch to a similar career, like medical transcription, a field that paid a 2014 median wage of $34,750, according to BLS. Like coders and billers, medical transcriptionists can often work from home.
  • minusMoving Up

    Moving into supervisory roles typically requires additional experience or qualifications, but such efforts can pay off. Coding and billing specialists who transfer into auditing, management or education typically earn $10,000 to $15,000 more than AAPC members who stick strictly to billing and coding. The BLS reports a 2014 median annual salary of $92,810 for medical or health services managers, who generally hold certification and a bachelor’s degree.

Medical Billing and Coding Career Search Resources

Unlike some industries that are concentrated in a particular region, healthcare jobs are everywhere, so people seeking a job may stay in their own communities or widen the net as much as they want. Following are several places to not only find jobs, but also pick up tips and other information about working in the field:

Medical Billing and Coding Jobs

Known for its many certification opportunities, the AAPC also has a job board that can be a valuable tool for billing and coding professionals.
AHIMA is an association for health information professionals nationwide. Its job board has hundreds of listings for members and nonmembers alike.
Users can search for jobs as well as submit their resumes to an anonymous pool and get email notifications when new career matches become available.
The AHCC specializes in certifications for coders who work in home care. The association also provides a search tool and email alerts to help home care coders find jobs anywhere in the country.
Contexto’s main focus is to provide training and education tools for medical billers and coders, but the site also has a national job board that can help professionals find the right career.
While HMBA membership has its benefits, membership is not required to use the association’s job search tool. Professionals can sort through national listings by company and location.
Members who enroll to use this job recruiting service can access the site’s job board and get connected with prospective employers.

Healthcare Job Sites

Users may search for jobs based on location, position and employer. Sign up for a free account to get email notifications and to upload a resume to the recruiter database.
Biohealthmatics is geared specifically to those working in biotechnology and healthcare IT. The career search site encourages users to network and interact with one another as a means of finding jobs, and also provides a tool for professionals to search for available jobs.
CareerVitals helps users create resumes and CVs and provides career advice. Users can then upload their resumes and use the site’s job search tool.
Those looking for work in the medical field can use the site’s search tool to find jobs by keyword and location. Job seekers and currently employed professionals alike may benefit from the articles and blog posts found on the site.
This site provides advice, news and salary information along with its job search tool, which allows users to search by keyword, skill, employer, and location.
Job seekers can post their resumes as well as browse available positions by occupation and location.
Healthcare professionals can post their resumes and search listings posted by more than over 90,000 medical facilities.
Hospital Recruiting offers an array of search criteria, and gives users the option to make a profile to help them keep track of searches, fill out applications, and get job posting alerts.
Staffpointe is a national recruitment agency that lets medical professionals browse for jobs or search by job category, title, location, or other keywords.

General Career Sites

The site offers career advice and job seeking tools to more than 24 million monthly visitors. Users can search for jobs by criteria like location and keyword, upload their resumes, submit applications, and save in-progress applications.
Government Jobs is geared specifically toward professionals looking for employment in the public sector. The site offers a job search tool, and users can apply for jobs and keep track of their applications.
Indeed is a global job search site with more than 180 million visitors each month. Users can search for jobs and get email alerts when new listings are posted. A keyword search history tool also lets users see which phrases and keyword combinations they’ve already searched.
LinkedIn is a social networking site designed for professionals. Because user profiles showcase employment history, skills and interests, it’s easy for recruiters to find appropriate candidates, and vice versa.
Users can upload resumes, create cover letters and search for jobs. The site also offers resume writing and distribution services to help job seekers get polished resumes out to recruiters.
Payscale not only offers an array of industry information, from employee job satisfaction to skills that increase earnings, but also allows visitors to look for available jobs.
Primoh! compiles job listings from an array of job boards, social media platforms and other online sources, and allows users to get their resumes out to multiple sources at once.
Simply Hired’s comprehensive job search tool lets users search by keyword, location, job title, and experience level. The advanced search option includes several specific filters and search options, from jobs for new graduates to ones that are LGBT-friendly.

What’s Next? Beyond Medical Billing and Coding

With its relatively quick educational and training path, medical billing and coding is an attractive option for many who want to enter the healthcare field. Rather than being an end goal, however, it can also be a launch-pad to careers that require more specialization or managerial responsibilities. Take a look below to see how professionals can combine medical billing and coding experience with additional training to leverage them into a more advanced job.

  • Medical Biller
    Submit medical claims to insurance companies, government assistance programs, and individual patients.
  • Health Information Technician
    Prepare medical documents by collecting and organizing patient information, and provide analysis as needed.
  • Clinical Informatics Coordinator
    Plan, implement and evaluate information systems used in medical care facilities.
  • Director of Clinical Informatics
    Serve as primary resource for information systems, especially EHR, managing.

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